Trees to Celebrate Arbor Day

In celebration of Arbor Day, here are some suggestions for trees native to Western New York to consider adding to your landscape. If you are unable to add a tree to your own property (or don’t own property) consider purchasing one of these from a locally owned nursery and donate it to a park, school or other worthy organization. Remember, life is always better when you slap your heart up against a tree and give it a big hug!

American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) 

This species is fast growing, long-lived (up to 600 years) and at maturity is among the largest indigenous trees of New York State with a substantial trunk and crown. It is characterized by a lovely multi-colored bark of gray, green, brown and ivory (resembling camouflage). It is quite tolerant of road salts so will do nicely in areas impacted by road drainage. It does equally well in very wet conditions and in drier terrain. Well known to naturally populate in areas that have been disturbed by construction, erosion, etc., so soil quality is not an issue. Other common names are Planetree, American planetree, and buttonball tree. Confirm the scientific name when purchasing your trees to be certain you are getting the native species.

Red Maple (Acer rubrum)

A species that can thrive in a wide varieties of habitats, the Red Maple can be a good choice for reforesting or creating a shady respite. Also called the Swamp, Scarlet and Soft Maple, A. rubrum is one of the most widely distributed trees in eastern North America, found from Florida all the way north to Newfoundland. and can tolerate soils from soggy to rocky. Under moist, fertile and well-drained conditions, the Red Maple can grow into a beautiful shade tree reaching about 80 feet tall at maturity and living up to 90 years or longer.

This species of Maple produces red flowers very early in the year, long before buds begin to swell, so is a true herald of Spring. It can either be monoecious (having both male and female reproductive parts) or dioiceous (either male or female) so it is best to plant 2 or three if the goal is to have it reforest an area. Red Maple is a prolific seed producer (double samaras in Spring) which germinate easily and so readily gives rise to subsequent generations. Be advised, however, that seedlings are a favorite food of White-tailed Deer so should be protected from browsing until trees reach about 4 to 6 feet tall.

As a bonus, Red Maple can be tapped for syrup and sugar production but, because it buds earlier than the Sugar Maple, sap extraction should be done only in the early part of sugaring season to ensure a sweet, quality product.

 

Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)

We’ll diverge into the conifer world for our third tree by focusing on the Eastern Hemlock. This lovely native of Eastern North America (from the Smokey Mountains north to Ontario and Quebec) is special among the conifers in that it can co-exist in a mature forest of deciduous trees due to its wonderful ability to tolerate shade.  Once a tree or two take hold, if undisturbed, a grove of Hemlocks can begin to flourish as they reproduce via tiny seeded cones.

Known by naturalists for creating “blue shade,” the Eastern Hemlock is a very important tree for wildlife, particularly in Winter as it becomes food and shelter for White-tailed Deer who nibble on needles and bed themselves beneath protective branches. Birds and members of the Squirrel family also find relief from bitter winds and snows within the Hemlocks and enjoy the habitat a grove of these trees can create.

The Eastern Hemlock is also among the longest living trees in the East, maturing at about 200 to 300 years old and living to or beyond 800 years. Although a slow grower in its youth, the Hemlock can eventually attain heights of about 125 feet. It tolerates a variety of soil types, but does best in moist, well drained areas. It produces a lot of tiny cones, but its seed does not germinate easily, succumbing to various factors or staying dormant until conditions are right for germination.

Create yourself a nice windbreak and deep shade with the Eastern Hemlock and get satisfaction from knowing you are helping wildlife survive the toughest weather each year.

Habitat Restoration Series: Native Plant Suggestions for Western New York/Southern Ontario – Part 2

Here is our second installment in our Habitat Restoration Series for Spring.
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Native Plantings for WNY/Southern Ontario – Submission #2 for wet/moist soils:
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Common Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)

web_MistyElderberryThese shrubs grow best in rich, moist, neutral soils that have good drainage. I have mine planted on a very shallow slope just above a very mucky spot and they do tremendously well. Sunlight should be from full sun to partial shade (they are often found along the woodland edge in the wild). They will shoot up new canes each year and are subject to spreading so you can choose a spot where they can spread at will or control them through pruning back older woody canes or mowing. It generally takes from 3 to 5 years for fruits to develop after planting young canes. Flowers develop in June so are not usually subject to fruit loss due to frost. Fruits begin to ripen in late Summer and persist well into October. This area native has many, many benefits. It is rich in vitamin C and potassium and has many medicinal qualities, especially in terms of the immune system.

Homeopathically (like treats like) Elderberry is considered to be good for the areas of the body that are “tubular” or “hollow” – blood, respiratory, nerves – based on the plant’s hollow stems. Both flowers and fruits can be used. Be advised that raw Elderberries Elders in flower on "The Acre"can have a strong cathartic effect so we advise that the fruits be heated for 5 minutes to neutralize those characteristics (generally small amounts may be eaten raw – just be prudent). Wildlife thrives on the berries and these shrubs can produce more than enough for sharing. You can have your pie, wine, jam and medicinals while leaving enough for birds and deer to “fatten up” on for Winter.

Sources for Elderberry, other than local nurseries, can be found on our webpage. Be sure you choose the Sambucus canadensis varietal as this is the true native in Eastern North America.
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Did you miss Submission #1? Have no fear, you can read all about Winterberry HERE!

Habitat Restoration Series: Native Plant Suggestions for Western New York/Southern Ontario – Part 1

As Spring deepens, thoughts naturally turn to outdoor activities, and for many of us that means gardening. Regardless of the available space (from acres to pots on the front stoop), nearly everyone can help provide wildlife habitat. We’ll help you along the way with some plant species suggestions over the next couple of weeks, beginning with our first entry below. If you are interested in learning more about providing wildlife habitat, come to our lunch-time talk, Creating Wildlife Habitat, at Erie Community College South Campus on April 23rd when we’ll share lots of way to help our wild friends who face diminishing habitat on a daily basis.

Native Plantings for WNY/Southern Ontario – Submission #1 for wet/moist soils:

Winterberry (Ilex verticillata): You might recognize from the Latin that this is a Holly. But unlike its evergreen cousins, Winterberry is a deciduous holly. And although it loses its leaves in Autumn, behind are left bright red berries that remain into early Winter, hence its name. Winterberry is also dioecious (male and female reproductive organs on separate plants) so be sure you get at least one male and a few females to surround him. This will help ensure an abundance of berries to brighten the early Winter landscape. And what a boon to wildlife in the Winter as the berries are eaten by small mammals, many birds (both song and game) and White-tailed Deer. Known also as Fever Bush and Black Alder, Winterberry was used by Indigenous Americans to treat not only fever, but the bark served in healing bruises and minor wounds. Native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada, Winterberry is challenged as we continually drain and/or develop wetlands. So if you’ve a wet or very moist spot, you can add some Winterberry and watch it spread over the area after a few seasons. It can also be put in drier areas but instead of spreading, it will grow in more of a clump. It prefers acidic soils with light requirements ranging from partial shade to full sun. Sources for Winterberry, other than local nurseries, can be found on our website at: http://oakmossed.com/garden.php.

Photo courtesy of Ohio StatePhoto courtesy of Ohio State

for the rest of the Spring Habitat Restoration series, see below:

Program: Creating Wildlife Habitat – April 23rd

Join us for this lunch-time lecture in celebration of Earth Day on Thursday, April 23 at Erie Community College South Campus. Habitat destruction due to human activity is the #1 cause of wildlife population declines and extinction. Learn how to stem this dangerous tide with tips for everyone, from landowners to apartment dwellers.

Lecture: Creating Wildlife Habitat

Tree-friendly Holiday Celebrations

HolidaySpruces

Former holiday trees continue on for future generations.

If you celebrate the holiday season with a conifer tree, consider using a live tree instead of a fresh-cut or artificial. While they should only remain indoors for a short period of time (no more than 10 days, watered sparingly), using a living tree is the most environmentally friendly method when employing them in holiday decor.

If you live in an area that experiences true Winter weather, after the celebrations are finished move the tree to a protected outdoor area that receives some Sun. A porch or near a building offering a wind block is perfect. Water lightly then insulate the root ball in straw, snow, blankets, or other suitable material. (Note – if the tree is kept on a porch, check the root ball for dryness during any thawing period. If completely dried out, water very lightly then re-insulate.)

Once the ground is workable in Spring, the tree should be planted in a suitable location for its future growth. No room to plant a tree on your property? Then donate it to a school, park, neighbor or friend.

We’ve planted many holiday trees over the years. One is now nearly 30 feet tall and a focal fixture in the landscape of a former home, providing much-needed shade in Summer and an energy-saving wind break in Winter. A real sense of accomplishment and joy surges through me whenever I drive past that house.

The photo above shows some of the holiday Spruces from the last dozen years that were all just a mere 3 feet tall when planted. These have provided nests for several generations of American Robins along with important weather and predation protection for many critters.

Go “live” this holiday season and consider employing such “seventh generation” concepts in your celebrations. The warm feeling it generates certainly will add to the festive nature of early Winter.

White_Pine_Sprig_Cone

White Pine – sacred tree of the Hodinöhšönih Confederacy

 

 

Our leaders were instructed to be men of vision
and to make every decision on behalf of
the seventh generation to come
;
to have compassion and love for
those generations yet unborn.”

Oren Lyons (Faithkeeper)
Onondaga – Hodinöhšönih

Native American Plant Wisdom at the Roycroft

Looking forward to presenting this program next weekend!

Native American Plant Wisdom at the Roycroft